Closed circulation of blood in vertebrates
  • Overview animation of evolution of the human circulation from that of fish
  • Blood as a one-way circuit – the basics
  • Double-looped human circuit
  • Single-looped fish circuit
  • Physics of the redoxing blood circuit
  • Closed circulation of blood as an archaic architectural trait
Mechanism of action - single to double looped circuit transition
  • The single-looped circuit and the oxyhaemoglobin shunt
  • Reptilian transition - establishing a pulmonary passageway
  • Vertebrate model of the single-looped circuit
  • Vertebrate loop-in-loop circuitry interdependence in the geomagnetic field
Developing a geometric algorithm to describe the transition
  • Loop-in-loop spatial relationship
  • Geometric representation of the loop-in-loop relationship
Relating the geometric transition to extant anatomy, from fish to man
  • Pharyngeal arches and the oxy-haem loop-in-loop
  • Aortic arch transformation
  • Interposed pulmonary passageway
  • Divergence of the pivoted ventral (ventricular) hoops
  • Spiraled aortic perfusion and pentagraphic somatomeric re-distribution
  • Great veins in translation
  • Retention of the angle of ventricular ejection
  • Gastrulation and delivery of the double-looped circuit to air
  • Influence of environmental conditions
  • Review of the biophysical model and its limitations